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液压系统冲洗的意义及方法

日期:2017年7月27日 13:30

  一、液压系统清洗的意义The significance of hydraulic system cleaning

  从使用的角度看,液压系统正常工作的首要条件是系统内部必须清洁。在新的设备运行之前,或一台设备经过大修之后,液压系统遭到污染是不可避免的,在软管、管道和管接头的安装过程中都有可能将污染物带入系统。即使新的油液也会含有一些令人意想不到的污染物。

      From Using point of view, the first condition of the normal work of the hydraulic power is that its system must be cleaned before new equipment operation, and also when a device after overhaul, hydraulic power station pollution is not avoidable, pipeline and the hose pipe joint of the installation process is likely to bring pollutants into system Even if the new oil will also contain a lot of unexpected pollution.

  必须采取措施尽快将污染物滤出,否则在设备投入运行后不久就有可能发生故障,而且早期发生的故障往往都很严重,有些元件例如泵、马达有可能会遭到致命性的损坏。

    Measures must be taken as soon as possible to clean contaminants out, is likely to be soon after equipment operation fails, and early fault often happens in the very serious, some components such as pumps, motors could have been lethal damage

  系统冲洗的目的就是消除或最大限度地减少设备的早期故障。冲洗的目标是提高油液的清洁度,使系统油液的清洁度保持在系统内关键液压元件的污染耐受度内,以保证液压系统的工作可靠性和元件的使用寿命。

    The purpose of system flushing is to eliminate or minimize the early failure of equipment.Flush the goal is to improve the purity of the oil, to keep the purity of the oil system key hydraulic components in the system of pollution within the tolerance level, to ensure the working reliability of the hydraulic system and component life.

  二、循环冲洗装置Circulating washer

  循环冲洗装置一般采用独立的大流量高压冲洗装置或系统的工作泵站进行管道的循环冲洗作业。

    The circulating flushing device generally adopts the independent large flow high pressure flushing device or the pumping station of the system to carry out the circulation washing operation of the pipe.

  独立的大流量高压冲洗装置的输出流量一般1000升/分以上,应由3-4台高压泵和1台低压泵组成,按照冶金液压系统的参数高压泵(31.5MPa)流量配置以250升/分、160升/分、100升/分、63升/分和低压泵(2.5MPa)400-600升/分可以组成不同的冲洗压力\流量的需要。

   Independent large flow high pressure flusher output flow generally above 1000 litres per minute, should be 3-4 sets of high-pressure pump and one low pressure pump, according to the metallurgical parameters of high-pressure pump hydraulic system configuration (31.5 MPa) flow quantity to 250 / min, 160 litres per minute, 100 litres per minute, 63 litres per minute and low pressure pump (2.5 MPa) 400-600 litres per minute can form different flushing pressure & flow needs.

  循环冲洗装置的输出管道接口应既能使所有冲洗泵的输出流量同时冲洗一个冲洗回路,也能组成同时冲洗多个独立的冲洗回路。

The output pipe interface of the circulating flushing device should be able to flush the output flow of all the flushing pumps simultaneously with a flushing loop, as well as the simultaneous flushing of multiple independent washing circuits.

  采用系统本身的工作泵站进行管道的循环冲洗作业也越来越多地获得广泛地应用和认可,采用工作泵站对系统管道冲洗是高效快速达到冲洗质量的可靠方法并具有更多的优点,具体表现在节省了宝贵的时间工期,节省了大量的临时配管材料,可利用工作泵站本身的正式的电气保护和系统中循环冷却、内循环过滤功能使得管道的系统冲洗效果更好更快。  

   Using itself pipe of the power station to work for circulation working is also more and more widely used and endorsed,self-pipe flushing for the power station is efficient to flush the quality reliable method and have the advantages of more specific performance in saving valuable time period, save a lot of temporary piping material, it can work in the formal electric protection and system of pumping station for itself loop cooling, inner loop filter function which can make the pipeline system flushing effect better.

  三、循环冲洗的步骤Steps for circular flushing.

  循环冲洗一般分为液压泵站到控制阀架主管道的冲洗和控制阀架到油缸和油马达支管道的冲洗。

    Circulating flushing is generally  classified from hydraulic power station to valves main pipeline flushing and  from valves to oil cylinder and oil motor branch pipe flushing.

  按照管道冲洗精度要求又分为中间管道的粗冲洗和所有管道的精冲洗。

    According to the requirements of pipe flushing precision, it is divided into coarse flushing of intermediate pipe and fine washing of all pipelines

  液压泵站到控架主管道的冲洗连接回路较为简单,只需要在主管道的尾端将连接起来。

     The flushing connection circuit of the hydraulic pump station to the main pipe is relatively simple and only needs to be connected at the end of the main pipe.

  控制阀架到油缸和油马达支管道的冲洗就相对复杂一些。有时就需要制作很多临时冲洗配管来组成一个个冲洗回路,这时要注意的是前面提到的串联和并联冲洗时应该考虑的一些因素。

    From the control valve rack to the cylinder and motor branch pipe flushing is relatively complex.Sometimes it is necessary to make a lot of temporary irrigation piping to form a single flush loop. It is important to note some factors that should be taken into consideration in the series and parallel flushing mentioned above.

  液压系统冲洗,可以按如下步骤进行:

    The hydraulic system flushing can be carried out as following

  在未安装敏感元件(如伺服阀等)之前,将管道及对污染物不敏感元件先装配起来,并将管子端部密封严实。

Before installing sensitive components (such as servo valves, etc.), assemble the pipe and the non-sensitive components and seal the end of the pipe.

  用跨接线代替敏感元件,将液压回路连接起来,并充液加压,进行冲洗,达到规定的清洁度为止。

    Replace the sensitive element with the jumper wire, connect the hydraulic circuit, and fill the liquid with pressure, and then rinse to achieve the required cleanliness

  选择的冲洗回路应跳过敏感元件,并尽可能减少流动阻力。冲洗时应避免脏油通过已经冲洗干净的管道,对于较复杂的系统,可选择回路先从支路冲洗到主管道,然后将支路与主管道隔开,再冲洗主管道,在冲洗回路的回油路上,装设滤油器或滤网,冲洗初期由于杂质较多,一般采用80目滤网,冲洗后期改用150目以上的滤网。

   The selected flushing circuit should skip the sensitive components and minimize flow resistance.Avoid washing dirty oil is through have rinsed clean pipeline, for more complex systems, can choose loop from branch first flush to the main line, and then to separate branch and the main line, to flush the main line, on the flush loop back to oil, installing filter or strainer, rinse the early due to the impurities, more commonly used 80 mesh sieve, flushing late to switch to more than 150 mesh sieve

  为了提高冲洗效果,在冲洗过程中的液压泵以间歇运动为佳,其间歇时间一般为10~30分钟,可在这一间歇时间内检测冲洗效果。在冲洗过程中,为了有利于管内壁上的附着物脱落,可以用木棒或橡皮锤等非金属锤轻轻敲击管道,可连续或间歇地敲击。

   In order to improve the flushing effect, the hydraulic pump in the flushing process is good with intermittent motion, and the intermittent time is usually 10 ~ 30 minutes, which can be used to detect the washing effect during this interval.In the process of washing, in order to facilitate the removal of the attachment on the wall of the tube, the pipe can be tapped with a non-metal hammer, such as a wooden rod or rubber hammer, which can be tapped continuously or intermittently.

  冲洗介质的选用通常是实际使用的液压油或试车油。避免使用酒精、蒸气等,以防腐蚀液压元件、管道、油箱及密封件等。

    The selection of the washing medium is usually the actual hydraulic oil or test oil. Avoid using alcohol, steam, etc. to prevent corrosion of hydraulic components, pipes, fuel tanks and seals.

  冲洗液的用量一般以油箱工作容量地60%~70%为宜,冲洗时间不要太长,一般为2~4小时,在特殊情况下不超过10小时。冲洗效果以回路过滤网上无污染杂质为标准。冲洗后的液压油需要经过质量检测才能确定能否继续使用。

The amount of washing liquid is generally 60% ~ 70% of the working capacity of the tank, and the washing time should not be too long, usually 2 ~ 4 hours, under special circumstances not more than 10 hours. The flushing effect is based on the circuit filtering of non-polluting impurities. After washing, the hydraulic oil needs to be tested to determine whether it can be used again.
 

  冲洗过程中还应该注意:

    Attention should also be paid to the flushing process.

  (1) 油箱要封闭,减少现场空气中颗粒进入油箱的机会;

     The tank should be closed to reduce the chance of particles entering the tank.

  (2) 相油箱中加入冲洗油时应使用带过滤器的加油小车,以滤除桶装油中的污染物;

     When flushing oil in the tank, use a refueling cart with strainer to remove contaminants from the tank oil.

  (3) 更换滤芯时暂停冲洗泵,注意不要带入杂质;

     Stop flushing the pump when changing the filter element, and be careful not to bring in impurities.

  (4) 对排空和排污要定期进行,以确保系统充满,并及时排出气体和污染物;

    It should be carried out on a regular basis to make sure the system is full and discharge gas and pollutants in time.

  (5) 在冲洗的前期,油中水分蒸发很重要,在冲洗油箱上应有蒸汽逸出的窗口;

   In the early stage of flushing, the evaporation of water in the oil is very important, and there should be a window of steam escaping from the tank.

  (6) 冲洗合格后在抽出冲洗油、管线使用前要注意保护,以免污染物进入系统。

   Be careful to protect the oil and pipeline before flushing, so as not to enter the system.

  四、 循环冲洗的参数 Parameters for circulating flushing.

  要获得良好的冲洗质量选择好循环冲洗的压力和流量是非常重要的一个保证。一般30—40个单元回路的液压系统的冲洗精度为NAS7级时的冲洗时间常常10-15天左右,对于液压伺服系统当要求的冲洗精度为NAS5级时冲洗时间甚至更长。

    It is very important to get good flushing quality to choose the pressure and flow rate of circulating flush.Generally 30-40 unit circuit as flush the precision of the hydraulic system for NAS7 flushing time usually 10 to 15 days or so, for the hydraulic servo system when required flush the accuracy level for NAS5 flushing time or even longer

  对于那些相对施工周期较短的工程项目,加快液压系统的冲洗进度缩短冲洗时间就更显得迫切了。可以说它是目前工程施工后期的一个非常棘手的问题。

    For projects with relatively short construction period, it is more urgent to speed up the washing time of hydraulic system.It can be said that it is a very difficult problem in the later stage of engineering construction.

  要达到理想的冲洗效果,冲洗时的雷诺数必须在4000左右(我们知道光滑圆壁管道的临界雷诺数Re(L)=2200-2300)。工程实践告诉我们经过酸洗后配管的碳钢管道每个单元回路的冲洗时间3-4小时后化验油样清洁度基本上达到NAS6-7级,当冲洗回路较短油样清洁度甚至达到NAS4-5级。

    To achieve the desired flushing effect, the Reynolds number must be around 4000 (we know that the critical Reynolds number of the smooth round wall tube (L) =2200-2300).Engineering practices tell us piping after acid pickling of carbon steel pipe of each unit circuit flushing time 3 or 4 hours after the test sample cleanliness basically achieve NAS6 - level 7, when washing cleanness of loop short sample even reach NAS4 - level 5

所属类别: 液压知识Hydraulic Experience

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